• Chapter 4 – Foundations of Planning

    Overview:  Lesson 1 - “Planning Basics” defines planning. Students will learn about planning and what it involves. They will read about the arguments for and against formal planning and about the different kinds of plans – strategic versus tactical; directional versus specific; short term versus long-term; and single-use versus standing plans. Students will study about management by objectives and why many businesses today involve their employees in setting performance objectives to meet organizational goals. They will learn how to set employee objectives and how a manager helps employees set work goals. Students will also learn how an influential thinker in the quality-management field thinks goal-setting may do more harm than good.  Lesson 2 - “Establishing Goals and Developing Plans”, places emphasis on the different approaches to establishing goals, characteristics of well-thought-out goals, and steps in goal setting. Students will learn the three contingency factors managers must consider as they plan. The last topic covered is “contemporary issues in planning” and includes criticisms of planning. Students are given steps they can take now toward becoming a manager.